Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education

The paper “Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: The State of the Field” by Helen Crompton and Diane Burke, provides an in-depth review of prior research and its findings are provided below.


  • The paper provides a systematic review of artificial intelligence (AI) in higher education (HE) from 2016 to 2022, examining 138 articles.
  • The number of publications related to AI in education (AIEd) in higher education rose two to three times in 2021 and 2022.
  • Research was conducted across six of the seven continents, reflecting a global trend.
  • Key trends include the use of AI in formative assessment and adaptive learning, with growing interest in ethical considerations and policy implications.


  • The authors introduce the context and background of AI, its evolution, and its specific applications in higher education.
  • The growth and changing landscape of AIEd have driven the need for a comprehensive understanding of the field.


  • The researchers used the PRISMA principles and protocol to identify articles for review.
  • A rigorous process of extraction, analysis, and coding was employed to categorize findings.


  1. Publication Trends: A significant increase in AIEd publications was noted, especially in the last two years.
  2. Global Reach: Research spans across various continents, with Asia and North America leading.
  3. Technology Trends: AI is being used in diverse educational disciplines, including language, engineering, mathematics, and medical education.
  4. Ethical Considerations: A growing emphasis on ethical aspects, including privacy and security concerns, has emerged.
  5. Assessment and Adaptive Learning: AI is increasingly being used for formative assessment, providing personalised learning experiences.
  6. Policy Implications: The paper emphasizes the need for well-defined policies and guidelines to govern the use of AI in higher education.


  • The paper highlights the growing importance and complexities of AI in higher education.
  • It emphasizes the need for collaboration between scholars, policymakers, and educators to ensure responsible and effective use of AI.
  • The study calls for further research, especially focusing on ethical considerations and best practices.


The paper serves as a comprehensive guide for understanding the current state of AI in higher education. It not only highlights the technological advancements and applications but also underscores the need for ethical considerations and coherent policy frameworks. The insights provided can be instrumental for educators, researchers, policymakers, and technology developers in shaping the future of AIEd.